An Experiment on Singapore tap water

Introduction

Water fluoridation is an archaic practice that descended from bad science. Public Utility Board (PUB) says that Singapore water is fluoridated at 0.5 ppm. pub 1 However, this is a simplistic assessment and does not taken into account how the boiling of water serves to concentrate fluoride. The danger of fluoride accumulation is especially pronounced given that boiling water is a basic cooking method all over the world. Especially in Singapore. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of fluoride in Singapore water. As well as to consider the risk of over exposure.

Method

The measurements were done using EXSTIK FL700 fluoride meter that is newly procured for the purpose of the test. The meter has a measuring range from 0.1 ppm to 9.99 ppm. The test were conducted on various water samples in Singapore. The water sample were measured in the small plastic vial provided with the instrument.

Results

Results
No Experiment ppm date comment
1 Tap water 0.7 2017-11-25
2 Distilled water 0 2017-11-25
3 bottled water from Northern Airlines 0 2017-11-25
4 tap water boiled once 0.8 2017-11-25
5 water dispenser cold 0.8 2017-11-25
6 water dispenser hot 0.9 2017-11-25
7 distiller residue >9.99 2017-11-25 exceeded measuring range
8 ice mountain pure drinking water 2.4 2017-12-03 highest among bottled drinking water
9 dasani drinking water 2.2 2017-12-03
10 evian mineral water 0.2 2017-12-03
11 Danone Aqua spring water 0.2 2017-12-03
12 marina mandarin oxygenated drinking water 0.1 2017-12-05 lowest among bottled drinking water. But not available off the shelf.
13 Fiji mountain spring 0.4 2017-12-19 higher than most spring water but lower than tap water. the higher level probably reflects’s Fiji’s volcanic proximity.

the data above will be updated as when new readings are made.

Conclusion

Water samples show an increase in fluoride level after boiling or even after passing through a water dispenser. Measurement of the water sample inside the distiller exceeds the instrument measuring threshold. This simulates the sustained boiling effect applied in many cuisine preparation. This is indicative that there will be increased fluoride level in those dishes. When buying bottled water, it’s best to go for mountain or spring water. As the drinking water tested all contain elevated levels of fluoride (compared to tap water).

Discussion

The only way to avoid the fluoride concentrating effect of boiling is by the removal of fluoride from our water source.

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